b'Carnegie SciencCarnegie Science|Spring/e|Spring 20Summer 2020 17Outer Moons of Jupiter New Moons of SaturnNewly discovered moons shown in bold Unlike the group of inner prograde moons, new prograde Diagram showing the 20 newly discovered moonsValetudo has an orbit that crosses the retrogrades.Prograde moonRetrograde groupGalilean moonsPrograde groupPrograde groupRetrograde groupThe team led by Carnegies Scott Sheppard first spotted the 11 newly discovered moonsThis artists conception shows the 20 newly discovered moons orbiting Saturn. These orbiting Jupiter in the spring of 2017 while hunting for a possible massive planet fardiscoveries bring the planets total moon count to 82, surpassing Jupiter for the most beyond Pluto. The two moons orbiting in the same direction of Jupiters orbit, themoons in our Solar System. Studying these moons can reveal information about their prograde group, are shown in blue. The orbits of nine outer moons moving in theformation and about the conditions around Saturn at the time.opposite direction, retrograde, are shown in red. The oddball moon, Valetudo, has anImage courtesy Carnegie Institution for Science (Saturn image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science orbit that crosses the outer group and is at risk for head-on collisions. Institute; starry background courtesy Paolo Sartorio, Shutterstock)Image courtesy Roberto Molar Candanosa, Carnegie Institution for SciencePublic Names New MoonsThe public was asked to help Sheppardsuggestions from October to early and his codiscoverers name five of JupitersDecember 2019. The naming rules are moons and all 20 of Saturns moons. Sincedifferent. Two of the newly discovered 1919, the International Astronomical Unionprograde moons fit into the Inuit group. (IAU) has governed planetary and satelliteAll submissions for this group must be nomenclature. There are many rules forgiants from Inuit mythology. Seventeen of naming moons. Most notably, Jovianthe newly discovered moons are retrograde naming conventions require its moons to bemoons in the Norse group. Submissions named after characters from Greek andfor this group must be giants from Norse Roman mythology who were eithermythology. Finally, one of the newly descendants or consorts of Zeus, or Jupiter.discovered moons has a prograde orbit The name Pandia was one of the more popular names There are other restrictions, includingsubmitted for a Jupiter moon. The teams favoriteand an inclination near 36 degrees, which maximum character lengths and the finalsubmission was from the astronomy club of Lanivetis similar to those in the Gallic group and letter of each name, depending on theCommunity Primary School in Cornwall, England. Emmamust be named after a giant from Gallic Hugo tweeted a picture of the astronomy club with a direction of a moons orbit. Pandia sign and the schools Panda mascot, whichmythology. (For details see https://The team solicited Jovian mooncelebrates the villages former role as bamboo suppliercarnegiescience.edu/NameSaturnsMoons.)to the London Zoo.names from February to April 2019. TheImage courtesy Emma Hugosubmissions ran the gamut from serious to silly, and the team selected the best tothe spirit of welcome and kindness and theSUPPORT:TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and submit to the IUA, which published thegranddaughter of Zeus; and Euphemeoperated by MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center. results in August. The winners are: Pandia(S/2003 J3 ), the spirit of praise and goodAdditional partners include Northrop Grumman, based in (S/2017 J4), the daughter of Zeus and theomen and the granddaughter of Zeus andFalls Church, Virginia; NASAs Ames Research Center in Californias Silicon Valley; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center moon goddess Selene; Ersa (S/2018 J1), thethe sister of Philophrosyne.for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts; MITs Lincoln Laboratory; and the Space Telescope Science sister of Pandia; Eirene (S/2003 J5), theThe contest was such a success thatInstitute in Baltimore. More than a dozen universities, goddess of peace and the daughter of Zeusthe researchers did the same thing forresearch institutes, and observatories worldwide are and Themis; Philophrosyne (S/2003 J15),Saturns new moons, solicitingparticipants in the mission'