b'AstronomyContinued18 The Youngest, Earliest . . . the universe and its Galaxies in the Universe structures were young, but oddly Astronomers recently found oxygen in galaxies thatrich in heavy elements . . .were created just hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. Conventional wisdom states that the first generation of stars in galaxies contained only theknown at times before 500 million years, and Tayna simplest and lightest elements, hydrogen and helium,is one of the youngest and faintest discovered. They with a little lithium and beryllium. Heavier elementsfound that it was profusely forming stars containing were generally formed later in the cores of stars byheavier elements, suggesting that universe did not nucleosynthesis and then dispersed via explodingevolve uniformly. starssupernovae. The Big Bang, some 13.7 billion years ago, produced The team, led by Carnegies Las Campanasa hot, murky soup of energetic particles that rapidly Observatory director Leopoldo Infante, discovered aexpanded. About 400,000 years later, the particles very young galaxy named Tayna, meaning newborn,cooled into neutral hydrogen gas. The universe whose light was emitted when the universe was onlystayed dark until gravity condensed matter into the 500 million years old. Only a handful of galaxies arefirst stars and galaxies. The energy released caused Years after the Big Bang At the top, this artwork depicts the current 400 thousand 0.1 billion 1 billion 4 billion 8 billion 13.8 billion understanding of the evolution of the The Big Bang Recombination universe beginning at far left. This new The Dark Age The First Galaxies Present day research suggests that early supernovae explosions scattered some heavy elements Fully ionized Neutralized Fully ionized into the interstellar medium that then reionized; electrons became excited Epoch of Reionization and were lost in differentiated zones or Search for Bubbles bubbles (middle image). The left plot at bottom shows the wavelengths of light of a very distant and young supermassive black Bubble? hole (SMBH) quasar. It is imaged at the top SMBH of the graphic. The telltale Lyman-alpha (Ly) signature is at left. The right plot z DE, 3> 23.32 J 1= 20.730.03 J = 20.300.02 H = 20.160.03 K s= 20.100.04 -2z=5.7:Ouchi+10Santos+16Konno+17 shows the number of sources as a function Ouchi+08z=6.6:Santos+16Konno+17-3z=6.9-7.0:Ota+10Zheng+17(LAGER-I) of brightness of different distant objects z=7.3:Shibuya+12Konno+14] -3) -1 12 Ly C 2Mpc -1 measured by different researchers. The -2cm -19 L) 10 -4 erg s (10 6 C ] 0 2.3 2.4 Mg [( log 10 red points are this teams measurements. -18 3 -5 They show an excess at the bright end, 0Transmission0.8 log -6 which they interpret to be the result of 0.4 Z DE J 1 J H K s (faint) Luminosity (bright)0.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 42.5 43.0 43.5 44.0 reionization epoch bubbles.Observed wavelength (m) log 10L Ly[erg s-1] Image courtesy Zhenya Zheng and Leopoldo Infante'