b'Global EcologyLinking Ecosystem Processes with Large-Scale Impacts32. . . the ocean-based farms couldgenerate at leastthree times more power. . . Ideally, more wind energy could be extracted if turbines formed one long row facing a steady Wind Wranglers wind. But due to numerous constraints, turbines on Land and Sea are arranged in rows. This lowers the wind-energy harvest due to the wake effect. Once wind energy Wrangling the wind to extract the most power fromis extracted from a turbine, the downstream wind turbines is no simple task. Clara Garcia-Sanchezhas reduced energy, forming a wake. Turbine and Anna Possner, two postdoctoral fellows in Kenturbulence and downward mixing of momentum are Caldeiras lab, use sophisticated, theoretical modelsfurther complications. to understand the geophysical opportunities and limits to wind power extraction on land and at sea toFocusing on the wake, Garcia-Sanchez is analyzing sustainably power humanity.the effects wind farms have on land winds. She Clara Garcia-Sanchez (left) and Anna Possner (right) are looking at a computer simulation where blue and surrounding areas within the white contours show depressed wind speeds in and around a land wind farm that is 50 miles x 50 miles (81 kilometers x 81 kilometers). Image courtesy Ken Caldeira'