b'Matter at Extreme StatesProbing Planetary Interiors, Origins, and Extreme States of Matter36Simple Glasses,Not So Simple ScienceOf all the elements, hydrogen in the form of water has the most profound control of matter and energy flow in the deep Earth. Understanding how water controls the melting of rock and migration of melt is essential to deciphering Earths formation and evolution. Deep transport mechanisms within terrestrial planets are governed by physical and chemical properties of silicate melts called magma,George Cody is checking cable connections prior to conducting a which in turn are strongly controlled by water-silicatesolid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment at the interactions. Experiments by George Cody andW.M. Keck Solid State NMR facility. The large silver cylinder is the superconducting solenoid magnet providing a static magnetic Bjrn Mysen, with postdoctoral fellows and interns,field that is about 150,000 times stronger than Earths magnetic have revealed that water-melt interactions are morefield. The cabling on the floor directs the flow of radio frequency complex than previously thought. pulses to the sample being studied, which sits at the center of the magnetic field. The solid-state NMR allows scientists to explore the chemistry of solid materials exploiting a physical property of Cody uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)matter known as intrinsic spin present in a wide range of stable spectroscopy to determine the fine-scale molecularisotopes, related elements with the same number of protons but structure of certain isotopes common in glassesdifferent numbers of neutrons. Funding for the NMR laboratory was provided the W.M. Keck Foundation, the National Science formed from rapidly cooled silicate melts. IsotopesFoundation, and the Carnegie Institution for Science. are variations of an element with the same numberImage courtesy George Codyof protons but a different number of neutrons. By focusing on simple melt compositions, Cody, Mysen, and their team sought to reveal the fundamentalquantum property called spin that can be detected physical chemistry of melt-water interactions. Certainby NMR. With NMR it is possible to investigate isotopes, including hydrogen ( 1 H), hydrogen witheach isotope without any interference from others, two neutrons called deuterium ( 2 H), oxygen ( 17 O),providing the clearest possible molecular picture of aluminum ( 27 AL), and silicon ( 29 Si), have a fundamentalsolids like glasses.'